SEARCH: A Study of Environmental Arctic Change
Through SEARCH, government agencies will cooperate to understand the full scope of the changes going on in the Arctic. Scientists will research exactly how the observed changes relate to the Arctic's natural variability and if the changes indicate the start of a major climate shift in the North.
Subpolar Atlantic Glider Surveys
PI's: Charlie Eriksen and Peter Rhines (UW). ONR.
This grant supports the initial launches of Seagliders in the subpolar Atlantic, complementing the sustained observation program above. The first launches of two Seagliders were carried out offshore of Nuuk, Greenland on 2 October 2003. The ocean physics of the region involves upper temperature/salinity structure, air/sea interaction, deep convection, mesoscale eddies and boundary currents. Following the ONR- led Deep Convection Experiment (1996-98) this work will provide new spatial/temporal hydrographic coverage of this complex, seasonally varying system.
Oceanic Observations of Climate Change in the Arctic-Subpolar Zone
PI's: Charlie Eriksen and Peter Rhines (UW). NOAA Arctic Program.
This 4-year program will support sustained Seaglider observations of the ocean circulation connecting the Arctic and Atlantic, with emphasis on the Labrador Sea and Iceland-Scotland Ridge. The Seaglider measures temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, particle scattering, and gives estimates of depth-averaged horizontal velocity, surface velocity and submesoscale vertical velocity. Dense time-space sampling of upper ocean freshwater and heat-dynamics is a key to understanding the large decadal variability seen in convection, freshwater movement and circulation of the subpolar gyre. The boundary currents feeding the global overturning circulation are a part of this variability. The grant also supports mooring observations in Barrow Strait in collaboration with Dr. Simon Prinsenberg of BIO (Bedford Inst. of Oceanography), Canada, and retrospective chemical tracer analysis by Dr. Peter Jones of BIO.
Canadian Archipelago Throughflow Study
PI: Kelly Falkner (OSU); Co-PI's: Roger Samelson & Marta Torres (OSU), Andreas Münchow & Kuo Wong (UDel), Tom Agnew (A&E, Canada), Peter Jones & John N. Smith (BIO, Canada), Humfrey Melling, Robie Macdonald, Fiona McLaughlin & Eddy Carmack (IOS, Canada). NSF, Office of Polar Programs.
The 5-year program contributes to the US Global Change Program. Our approach combines a moored array with intense ocean surveys, satellite remote sensing, bivalve chemical analyses and atmospheric modeling. It will uncover if the freshwater flux through the Canadian Archipelago compares to those between Greenland, Iceland and Norway.
FSAO: Circulation in the Freshwater Switchyard of the Arctic Ocean
PI: Mike Steele (UW); Co-PI's: Bill Smethie & Peter Schlosser (LDEO) and Ron Kwok (JPL). NSF, Office of Polar Programs.
FSAO is a program to study freshwater circulation (sea ice + upper ocean) in the "freshwater switchyard" between Alert (Ellesmere Island) and the N. Pole. This region lies upstream of North Atlantic deepwater convection sites and Sections will cross both the Transpolar Drift Stream and the North American Boundary Undercurrent, which vary interannually in composition and strength.
An Observational Array for High Resolution, Year-round Measurements of Volume, Freshwater, and Ice Flux Variability in Davis Strait
PI: Craig Lee (UW); Co-PI's: Jason Gobat & Richard Moritz (UW), Ken Drinkwater & Brian Petrie (BIO, Canada). NSF, Office of Polar Programs.
As part of a coordinated international effort to quantify (and eventually monitor) the variability of fluxes connecting the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans and to understand the role played by the Arctic and sub-Arctic in steering decadal scale climate variability, we propose an integrated observing system that will provide year-round measurements of volume, liquid freshwater and ice fluxes across Davis Strait.
Assessing the Long-Term Contribution of Landfast Ice to the Arctic Freshwater Budget
PI: Yanling Yu (UW); Co-PI: Harry Stern (UW). NSF, Office of Polar Programs.
Despite its significance, the interannual variability of landfast ice is not well studied and thus poorly understood. This proposed research is to provide a new understanding of the large-scale interannual variability of landfast ice and its long-term contribution to the Arctic freshwater budget. Our goals are to (1) examine the interannual variability of landfast ice extent for the whole Arctic basin; (2) investigate the spatial and temporal changes in fast ice growth and melt as well as brine flux due to ice formation; (3) analyze the long-term changes in fast ice volume in terms of freshwater storage by landfast ice in response to the Arctic climate variations, such as changes in snowfall, surface air temperatures, wind, and major river discharge.
IABP: International Arctic Buoy Program
The Participants of the IABP work together to maintain a network of drifting buoys in the Arctic Ocean to provide meteorological and oceanographic data for real-time operational requirements and research purposes including support to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and the World Weather Watch (WWW) Programme.
High Latitude Dynamics
This program strives to understand the physics of the high-latitude oceans, including their circulation illuminate the role of the polar oceans in climate, identify the links between physical mechanisms and the biology and chemistry of the high-latitude marine environment and achieve a mechanistic understanding of the variability of cold oceans and lakes.
Chukchi Borderlands: An Arctic Crossroads
Rebecca Woodgate & Knut Aagaard (UW), Jim Swift (Scripps), Bill Smethie (LDEO), Kelly Falkner (OSU), Ed Carmack & Fiona McLaughlin (IOS, Canada)
Collection of new field data will be combined with historical data in order to model the entrance into the Arctic Ocean, an area 600 miles north of the Bering Strait. The objective of the work is to analyze the role this crossroads area plays both in the Arctic and in world climate.
NPEO: A Year-Round Automated Environmental Observatory in the Central Basin of the Arctic Ocean
The Observatory offers opportunities for three types of measurements:
1) Drifting data buoys reporting via satellite provide coverage over a wide geographic area by following the drift of the ice pack.
2) Oceanographic moorings anchored to the ocean floor recording internally measure long-term time series at a single position beneath the ice.
3) Aerial surveys of hydrographic casts profiling parameters from the surface become possible using the light aircraft used in the April mooring and buoy deployments.
Arctic CHAMP: Community-wide Hydrologic Analysis and Monitoring Program
The primary aim of Arctic-CHAMP is to catalyze and execute the necessary interdisciplinary research in order to construct a holistic understanding of arctic hydrology. Four primary science goals guide the effort, to:
Assess and better understand the stocks and fluxes within the arctic hydrologic cycle.
Document natural variability in and changes to the arctic water cycle, contributing a hydrological component to the multiagency SEARCH (Study of Environmental ARctic Change) Program.
Understand the sources of natural variability and causes of arctic water cycle change and assess their direct impacts on biological and biogeochemical systems.
Develop predictive simulations of the response of the earth system and human society to feedbacks arising from natural variability and progressive changes to the arctic hydrological cycle.